Pregnancy Preparation Analysis And Determinant Factors In Pregnant Women

Main Article Content

Nuriah Arma
Harmy bin Mohamed Yusoff
Hassan Basri bin Mukhali


Background: Pregnancy preparation is still not the focus of attention for pregnant women. Good pregnancy preparation is supported by three factors, namely social demographics, pregnancy characteristics, and a history of depression. This study aims to analyze pregnancy preparation and its determinant factors in pregnant women in Medan City, North Sumatra Province.

Methods: This research is quantitative correlational analytic research with a cross-sectional approach. The population in this study was all pregnant women at health centers in Medan City, North Sumatra. The sampling technique used simple random sampling, with a total of 375 pregnant women. The data were analyzed through the Chi-Square test.

Results: There was a significant relationship between age ( p = 0.005), education (p = 0.001), economic status (p = 0.012), pregnancy status  (p = 0.000), and history of depression (p = 0.002) with preparation for pregnancy in pregnant women. 

Conclusion: The existence of socio-demographic relationships, pregnancy characteristics, and a history of depression with pregnancy preparation in pregnant women provide an overview for health workers to assist in pregnancy preparation during preconception.

Article Details

How to Cite
Arma, N., Mohamed Yusoff, H. bin, & Mukhali, H. B. bin. (2022). Pregnancy Preparation Analysis And Determinant Factors In Pregnant Women . Jurnal Kebidanan Dan Kesehatan Tradisional, 166–176.


Abita, Z., & Shikur, Z. (2020). Assessment of knowledge and practice on birth preparedness and complication readiness among women who gave birth in the last 12 months in southwest, Ethiopia 2016. Global Reproductive Health, 5(3), e48–e48.

Almaghaslah, E., Rochat, R., & Farhat, G. (2017). Validation of a pregnancy planning measure for Arabic-speaking women. PLoS ONE, 12(10), 1–17.

Bagherzadeh, R., Gharibi, T., Safavi, B., Mohammadi, S. Z., Karami, F., & Keshavarz, S. (2021). Pregnancy; an opportunity to return to a healthy lifestyle: a qualitative study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 21(1), 1–12.

Bauer, I., Hartkopf, J., Kullmann, S., Schleger, F., Hallschmid, M., Pauluschke-Fröhlich, J., … Preissl, H. (2020). Spotlight on the fetus: How physical activity during pregnancy influences fetal health: A narrative review. BMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine, 6(1).

Belay, Y. A., Moges, N. A., Hiksa, F. F., Arado, K. K., & Liben, M. L. (2018). Prevalence of antenatal depression and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care at Dubti Hospital: A case of pastoralist region in northeast Ethiopia. Depression Research and Treatment, 208(7), 1–9.

Bind, R. H., Biaggi, A., Bairead, A., Du Preez, A., Hazelgrove, K., Waites, F., … Pariante, C. M. (2021). Mother–infant interaction in women with depression in pregnancy and in women with a history of depression: the Psychiatry Research and Motherhood – Depression (PRAM-D) study. BJPsych Open, 7(3), 1–10.

Borges, A. L. V., Barrett, G., dos Santos, O. A., Nascimento, N. de C., Cavalhieri, F. B., & Fujimori, E. (2016). Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy in Brazilian Portuguese. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 16(1), 1–9.

Bukenya, J. N., Wanyenze, R. K., Barrett, G., Hall, J., Makumbi, F., & Guwatudde, D. (2019). Contraceptive use, prevalence and predictors of pregnancy planning among female sex workers in Uganda: A cross sectional study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 19(1), 1–12.

Das, S., Hall, J., Barrett, G., Osrin, D., Kapadia, S., & Jayaraman, A. (2021). Evaluation of the Hindi version of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy among pregnant and postnatal women in urban India. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 21(1), 1–13.

De Oliveira Rodrigues, G., da Silva Jardilino, D., de Souza Maciel, N., da Silva Ferreira, D., Chaves, A. F. L., & da Costa, C. C. (2022). Knowledge, attitude, and practice of pregnant women before and after a group intervention. Enfermeria Global, 21(2), 261–273.

Duko, B., Ayano, G., & Bedaso, A. (2019). Depression among pregnant women and associated factors in Hawassa city, Ethiopia: An institution-based cross-sectional study. Reproductive Health, 16(1), 1–6.

Faisal-Cury, A., Quayle, J., Marques, T., Menezes, P. R., & Matijasevich, A. (2015). The relationship between socioeconomic indicators during pregnancy and gynecological appointment at any time after childbirth. International Journal for Equity in Health, 14(1), 1–7.

Flynn, A. C., Pryke, E., Wadhera, M., Poston, L., & White, S. L. (2021). A preconception intervention targeted at women with modifiable risk factors before pregnancy to improve outcomes; protocol for the Get Ready! feasibility trial. Pilot and Feasibility Studies, 7(1), 1–7.

Gross, K., Alba, S., Glass, T. R., Schellenberg, J. A., & Obrist, B. (2012). Timing of antenatal care for adolescent and adult pregnant women in south-eastern Tanzania. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 12(16), 1–12.

Habib, M. A., Raynes-Greenow, C., Nausheen, S., Soofi, S. B., Sajid, M., Bhutta, Z. A., & Black, K. I. (2017). Prevalence and determinants of unintended pregnancies amongst women attending antenatal clinics in Pakistan. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 17(1), 1–11.

Hall, J. A., Barrett, G., Copas, A., Phiri, T., Malata, A., & Stephenson, J. (2018). Reassessing pregnancy intention and its relation to maternal, perinatal and neonatal outcomes in a low-income setting: A cohort study. PLoS ONE, 13(10), 1–17.

Hall, J. A., Barrett, G., Phiri, T., Copas, A., Malata, A., & Stephenson, J. (2016). Prevalence and determinants of unintended pregnancy in Mchinji district, Malawi; using a conceptual hierarchy to inform analysis. PLoS ONE, 11(10), 1–23.

Hijazi, H. H., Alyahya, M. S., Al Abdi, R. M., Alolayyan, M. N., Sindiani, A. M., Raffee, L. A., … Al Marzouqi, A. M. (2021). The impact of perceived social support during pregnancy on postpartum infant-focused anxieties: A prospective cohort study of mothers in Northern Jordan. International Journal of Women’s Health, 13(October), 973–989.

Klodian Dhana, Geng Zong, Changzheng Yuan, Schernhammer, E., Zhang, C., Wang, X., … Alison. (2018). Lifestyle of women before pregnancy and the risk of offspring obesity during childhood through early adulthood. Physiology & Behavior, 176(1), 139–148.

Magnus, M. C., Ferreira, D. D. S., Borges, M. C., Tilling, K., Lawlor, D. A., & Fraser, A. (2020). Cardiometabolic health during early adulthood and risk of miscarriage: a prospective study. Wellcome Open Research, 5(205), 1–18.

Mihretie, G. N., & Habitamu, A. (2022). Pregnancy outcomes among women who gave birth at health institutions: A cross-sectional study. Health Science Reports, 5(5), 1–13.

Moura, V. F. de S., Pedrão, L. J., Souza, A. C. S., & Boaventura, R. P. (2015). Depression among pregnant women at the end of pregnancy. SMAD. Revista Eletrônica Saúde Mental Álcool e Drogas (Edição Em Português), 11(4), 234.

Mwase-Musicha, L., Chipeta, M. G., Stephenson, J., & Hall, J. A. (2022). How do women prepare for pregnancy in a low-income setting? Prevalence and associated factors. PLoS ONE, 17(3 March), 1–12.

Nascimento, N. de C., Borges, A. L. V., & Fujimor, E. (2019). Preconception health behaviors among women with planned pregnancies. Rev Bras Enferm, 72(Suppl 3), 17–24.

Naze, C. (2017). Current Concepts of Maternal Nutrition. Pediatric Emergency Care, 33(12), 792–793.

Olani, A. B., Bekelcho, T., Woldemeskel, A., Tefera, K., & Eyob, D. (2022). Evaluation of the Amharic version of the London measure of unplanned pregnancy in Ethiopia. PLoS ONE, 17(6 June), 1–15.

Poudel, K., Kobayashi, S., Miyashita, C., Ikeda‐araki, A., Tamura, N., Bamai, Y. A., … Kishi, R. (2021). Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy (Hdp), maternal characteristics, and birth outcomes among Japanese women: A hokkaido study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(7).

Ranatunga, I. D. J. C., & Jayaratne, K. (2020). Proportion of unplanned pregnancies, their determinants and health outcomes of women delivering at a teaching hospital in Sri Lanka. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 20(1), 1–16.

Sampoera, W. K. D. ., Wardani, H. E., & Hapsari, A. (2020). The Correlation Between Level of Knowledge, Socio-Economic Status, Health Care Support, and Family Support With the Frequency of Pregnancy Examination Visits in Nganjuk. Advances in Health Sciences Research, 31, 72–76.

Shakeel, N., Eberhard-Gran, M., Sletner, L., Slinning, K., Martinsen, E. W., Holme, I., & Jenum, A. K. (2015). A prospective cohort study of depression in pregnancy, prevalence and risk factors in a multi-ethnic population. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 15(1), 1–11.

Solís-Cordero, K., Couto, L. A., Duarte, L. S., Borges, A. L. V., & Fujimori, E. (2021). Pregnancy planning does not interfere with child development in children aged from 11 to 23 months old. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem, 29, 1–11.

Tadese, M., Dagne, K., Wubetu, A. D., Abeway, S., Bekele, A., Kebede, W. M., & Mulu, G. B. (2022). Assessment of the adverse pregnancy outcomes and its associated factors among deliveries at Debre Berhan Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia. PLoS ONE, 17(7 July), 1–13.

Wardani, A. B., & Tridiyawati, F. (2022). Education In Preparing Psychology Of Pregnant Mothers To Face Delivery The Covid-19 Puskesmas ( Community Health Center ) The Year 2022. International Journal of Medicine and Health (IJMH), 1(4), 17–20.

Yadegari, L., Dolatian, M., Mahmoodi, Z., Shahsavari, S., & Sharifi, N. (2017). The relationship between socioeconomic factors and food security in pregnantwomen. Shiraz E Medical Journal, 18(1), 1–6.

Yargawa, J., Machiyama, K., Ponce Hardy, V., Enuameh, Y., Galiwango, E., Gelaye, K., … Machiyama, K. (2021). Pregnancy intention data completeness, quality and utility in population-based surveys: EN-INDEPTH study. Population Health Metrics, 19(Suppl 1), 1–19.

Yelkumo, Suara, S. B., Boakye-Yiadom, & Aryee, P. A. (2019). Socio-Economic Determinants of Birth and Emergency Preparedness in Antenatal Care: a Study Among Mothers in the Wa Municipality. UDS International Journal of Development [UDSIJD], 6(1), 10–22. Retrieved from